Polyunstaturated fats may cut risk of heart disease

first_imgAlthough for nearly 60 years people have been urged to decrease their consumption ofsaturated fats to prevent heart disease, there has been surprisingly littlescientific evidence that doing so actually decreases the risk of coronary heartdisease events. But a new study (available in full here) by researchers at Harvard School of PublicHealth (HSPH) provides the first conclusive evidence from randomized clinicaltrials that people who replace saturated fat in their diet with polyunsaturatedfat reduce their risk of coronary heart disease by 19 percent, compared withcontrol groups of people who do not.By systematically reviewing a large group of randomized clinical trials andconducting a pooled meta-analysis of these studies, the HSPH team found thatincreasing the intake of polyunsaturated fats as a replacement for saturatedfats could significantly reduce the rate of heart attacks and cardiac deaths inthe population. The study appears in the March 23 issue of the open-accessjournal PLoS Medicine.Over the past several decades, the food industry has reduced the amount ofsaturated fat in many products, and the public has reduced the amount ofsaturated fat in its food consumption. However, there has been a wide variationin the types of nutrients that have replaced this saturated fat. For example,in many products saturated fats were replaced with trans fats, which have sincebeen determined to be detrimental. And in the overall American diet, saturatedfat was generally replaced with increased consumption of refined carbohydratesand grains.“The specific replacement nutrient for saturated fat may be very important,”said lead author Dariush Mozaffarian, assistant professor in the Department of Epidemiologyat HSPH and the Department of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. “Our findingssuggest that polyunsaturated fats would be a preferred replacement for saturatedfats for better heart health.”Results from prior individual randomized controlled trials of saturated fatreduction and heart disease events were mixed, with most showing no significanteffects. Other trials focused only on blood cholesterol levels, which are anindirect marker of risk. Large observational studies also generally have shownno relationship between saturated fat consumption and risk of heart diseaseevents. For example, earlier this month, researchers from HSPH and Children’sHospital Oakland Research Institute performed a pooled meta-analysis of priorobservational studies and found no evidence that overall consumption ofsaturated fat was related to risk of coronary heart disease or stroke events.Some of these mixed findings may relate to the absence of prior focus on thespecific replacement nutrient for saturated fat. In other words, was saturatedfat replaced primarily with carbohydrates, monounsaturated fats such as inolive oil, or polyunsaturated fats such as in most vegetable oils?Mozaffarian and his HSPH colleagues Renata Micha and Sarah Wallace performed asystematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials throughJune 2009 in which participants specifically increased their polyunsaturatedfat consumption as a replacement for saturated fat, and in which coronary heartdisease events were documented. Eight trials met the inclusion criteria,totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 coronary heart disease events.The meta-analysis of the trials showed that increasing polyunsaturated fatconsumption as a replacement for saturated fat reduced the risk of coronaryheart disease events by 19 percent. For every 5 percent increase (measured astotal energy) in polyunsaturated fat consumption, coronary heart disease riskwas reduced by 10 percent. This is now just the second dietary intervention — consuminglong-chain omega-3 fatty acids is the first — to show a reduction in coronaryheart disease events in randomized controlled trials.Currently, the Institute of Medicine guidelines recommend that a range of 5 to10 percent in energy consumption come from polyunsaturated fats. In addition,some scientists and organizations have recently suggested that consumption ofpolyunsaturated fats (largely omega-6 fatty acids) should actually be reduced,due to theoretical concerns that such consumption could increase coronary heartdisease risk.The results from this study suggest that polyunsaturated fats from vegetable oilsmay be an optimal replacement for saturated fats, an important finding fordietary guidelines and for when food manufacturers and restaurants are makingdecisions on how to reduce saturated fat in their products. The findings alsosuggest that an upper limit of 10 percent of energy consumption frompolyunsaturated fats may be too low, as the participants in these trials whoreduced their risk were consuming about 15 percent of their energy frompolyunsaturated fats.Support for this study was provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute,the National Institutes of Health, and a Searle Scholar Award from the SearleFunds at the Chicago Community Trust. Normal.dotm0017894500Harvard University379552612.00false18 pt18 pt00falsefalsefalselast_img read more

Ivory Coast shorlist five coaches

first_imgThe Ivorian Football Federation has announced a five-man shortlist for the vacant position of head coach of the national team.The Elephants are without a coach following the departure of Frenchman Hervé Renard who left for Lille earlier in the year after winning the Africa Cup of Nations.The five contenders selected are Patrice Neveu, Paolo Duarte, Michel Dussuyer, Henryk Kasperczak and Frederic Antonetti. The list includes three Frenchmen, a Polish and a Portuguese who are all expected to have proficiency in French.In a statement published on the website of the federation, 59 applications were received and the committee set up to select a coach presented a choice of five to the Executive Committee.The shortlist will further be cut down to three before a final decision is made. Frederic Antonetti is the only one not to have worked on the continent.Henryk Kasperczak is perhaps the most successful amongst the five having secured second place with Tunisia in 1996, third with Côte d’Ivoire (1994) and fourth with Mali (2002) at the African Cup of Nations tournament. Paolo Duarte on the other hand has coached Burkina Faso and then Gabon where he was sacked for failing to qualify the team to the 2013 AFCON and 2014 World Cup.Patrice Neveu has had stints with Niger, Guinea and DR Congo with his latest job being with Mauritania. Michel Dussuyer has coached Benin and then recently the Syli Nationale of Guinea.The job has become vacant because Hervé Renard, who led the Elephants to a historic second African Cup of Nations title, left to Lille in France.–last_img read more